The Religious Year (8+9/12): Onions for Bastet. The planting season (peret) was ending; the season of harvest (shemu) was starting. Over these two months, Egyptians looked to the fields, and the gods that would protect the growth of the crops. To guarantee divine favour and protection, they looked to beings that would protect them from [...]

Amunhotep II (Part 6): Latter Days Around 1420 BCE, Amunhotep II was entering his last days on the throne. The King was in his early forties, and beginning to feel his age. It was time to look for a successor; but with so many children (10+) around, who was the King going to choose? Direct [...]

How to Make Friends and Rule the Nile Valley The pharaoh Amunhotep II (c.1430 BCE) has a reputation for cronyism. He promoted friends and confidants to positions of influence and power, seemingly on the basis of familiarity rather than merit. This contrasts sharply with his father, making Amunhotep appear to be a shift in the [...]

Amunhotep II (Part 3): the Origins of the Exodus. 1435 BCE was a landmark year. Leading two campaigns, in regnal years seven and nine, Amunhotep II institutes a new policy of depopulating rebellious regions in Canaan, Lebanon and Syria. He strips whole communities of their families, and brings thousands back to Egypt as captives. These [...]

Canaanites, Egyptians and a Divided Kingdom (c.1700 BCE) Egypt is riven in two: Kings lose control of the North, and the land becomes a battleground. What went wrong? Direct Download (Save As mp3) Plague pit discovered at Avaris (Source: Gregory Mumford). The hypothesised bordes of the two kingdoms (Larger Resolution). The digitally reconstructed palace of [...]