Akhenaten (Part 4): Aten Above All.
In 1360 BCE, regnal year 3, King Nefer-kheperu-Re Amunhotep IV made some of his most startling decisions yet. Promoting the sun disc, Aten, even further, Amunhotep began to give the god royal accessories (cartouches, uraei etc) and present it as a being tied intimately with the pharaoh. This culminated in an unprecedented event: a Sed-Festival, celebrated at Karnak, and shared by the King and God together…
- Time period: c.1360 BCE (regnal year 3)
- King: Amunhotep IV (Nefer-kheperu-Re Wa-en-Re)
- Queen: Nefertiti (Nefer-neferu-Aten Neferet-iti)
- Locations: Waset (Thebes); the Wadi Hammamat
Special Thanks to My Patrons!
ATP – Smith and Redford, Akhenaten Temple Project, 1976.
Aidan Dodson, Amarna Sunrise, 2014.
Jocelyn Gohary, Akhenaten’s Sed-Festival at Karnak, 1992.
James K. Hoffmeier, Akhenaten & the Origins of Monotheism, 2015.
Donald B. Redford, Akhenaten: The Heretic King, 1987.
Donald B. Redford, The Akhenaten Temple Project vol. II: Rwd-Mnw and Inscriptions, 1988.
Donald B. Redford, “Akhenaten: New Theories, Old Facts,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (2013): 9-34. JSTOR.
Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt, 2005.
William J. Murnane, Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, 1995.
William J. Murnane, “Observations on Pre-Amarna Theology During the Earliest Reign of Amenhotep IV,” Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente (1999): 303-317.
Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt’s False Prophet, 2005.
Ray Winfield Smith and Donald B. Redford, The Akhenaten Temple Project vol. I: Initial Discoveries, 1976.
Eric Uphill, “The Sed-Festivals of Akhenaton,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies (1963): 123-127. JSTOR.