Amunhotep III (Part 5): Exploring Nubia.
In September 1397 BCE, Amunhotep III took a trip far beyond his borders. He and his warriors traversed the Bayuda Desert, explored the wastes, and came to mysterious lands deep in the lands of Nubia (Sudan). What transpired was a story for the annals…
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Amunhotep’s route (Higher Resolution)
Gebel Barkal (author’s photo)
The Pools of Horus (Gakdul Wells) today. Photo by Michael Asher (Facebook)
The Gakdul Wells in the 19th Century. Visited by British armies crossing the Sudan, during the Mahdist Wars.
Pottery of southern Nubia (Irem and Miw)
All images from the Reports of the Sudan Antiquities Service French Archaeological Unit
Amunhotep smiting Nubians (Kozloff 2012)
The Sudan Antiquities Service French Archaeological Unit website
The Sudan Archaeological Research Society website
Charles Bonnet, “Upper Nubia from 3000 to 1000 BC,” in W.V. Davies (editor), Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam, 1991.
P.L. Shinnie, “Trade Routes of the Ancient Sudan 3,000 BC – AD 350,” in W.V. Davies (editor), Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam, 1991.
Arielle P. Kozloff, Amenhotep III: Egypt’s Radiant Pharaoh, 2012.
Stuart Tyson Smith, Wretched Kush: Ethnic Identities and Boundaries in Egypt’s Nubian Empire, 2003.
Lazlo Török, Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region between Ancient Nubia and Egypt 3700 BC – 500 AD, 2008.