Mini Episode: Birthday Festivities

The Egyptian Religious Year (Part 12/12).

The Egyptian year ended on a down-note. Thanks to a string of “unlucky” days, the ancients experienced a time of uncertainty and disorder in their lives. Part of this was due to the fact that the end of the year was co-opted entirely by Sakhmet, Lady of War and Pestilence; and by the five hriw-renpet, the “Days upon the Year,” which took the form of five divine birthdays


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Tamas A. Bacs, “Two Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days,” Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 1990.

J.F. Borghouts, Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts, 1978.

Peter Der Manuelian, “An Essay in Document Transmission: Nj-k-anx and the Earliest hriw-rnpt,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1986.

Richard A. Parker, The Calendars of Ancient Egypt, 1950.

Anthony Spalinger, “Some Remarks on the Epagomenal Days in Ancient Egypt,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1995.