The Ancient Egyptian Day of the Dead (The Religious Year, Part 10/11)
In months 10 and 11, the Egyptians celebrated some essential festivals to honour the past and prepare for the future. With the harvest now underway, and the flood on the horizon, the Egyptians first celebrated the memory of their ancestors, and then made offerings to Hapy: lord of the Nile, bringer of the inundation, master of all Egypt. It was a busy time of year; the Egyptians were going flat out.
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The Beautiful Festival of the Valley in the time of Ramesses II (c.1250 BCE).
The Beautiful Festival in the tomb of Nakht (c. 1420 BCE).
Hapi in the time of Ramesses II, uniting the Two Lands of Egypt (c. 1250 BCE)
The god Hapi, in colossal-form from the city of Thonis-Heracleion, c.300 BCE.
Anthony J. Spalinger, “Ancient Egyptian Calendars,” in Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy, 2015.
Emily Teeter, Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt, 2011.
Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, 2003.