Thutmose III (Part 8): The Final Campaigns.
1455 to 1450 BCE. After 20+ years of near-annual campaigning, Thutmose III finally came to the end of his life at war. We explore the last ten years of this process in one sweep…
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Map of the episode’s major sites (for larger view: right-click > open image in new tab).
Thutmose smiting his enemies, from Karnak (Wikimedia).
Near-Eastern Bronze-Age swords; Louvre (The Ancient World podcast).
Donald B. Redford, The Wars in Syria and Canaan of Thutmose III, 2003.
Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, 1992.
Ellen Fowles Morris, The Architecture of Imperialism, 2005.
Richard A. Gabriel, Thutmose III: A Military Biography, 2009.
Colleen Manassa, Imagining the Past: Historical Fiction in New Kingdom Egypt, 2013.
James K. Hoffmeier, “Aspects of Egyptian Foreign Policy in the 18th Dynasty in Western Asia and Nubia,” Penn State 2001.
Norman de Garis Davies, “Foreigners in the Tomb of Amenemhab (No. 85),” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 1934.