Thutmose III (Part 3): Foreigners and Trade.
1465 BCE. We explore the world beyond the Egyptian Empire. Visiting the peoples of Crete (Keftiu), Cyprus (Alashiya) and Byblos (Kupna) we see what was happening beyond the realm of direct Egyptian rule. Oh, and there’s a goofy poem at the end.
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The “bull leapers” of Peru-Nefer (auaris.at)
Keftiu in the tomb of Rekh-mi-Re, at Thebes (Nina de Garis Davies)
Ceramics brought by the Keftiu (Hall, 1902)
Keftiu in tombs (Hall, 1902)
The major archaeological sites of Crete
Crete: a deity or ruler demonstrates mastery over nature (AHE)
A bee pendant from Crete, perhaps showing Egyptian artistic influence (AHE)
Copper ingots, Herakleion Archaeological Museum (photo by D. Perry)
A Syrian ship (Wachsmann, 2008)
Byblos: a pectoral of the Haty-a / Mayor, showing clear Egyptian influence. Horus wings and falcon heads dominate the form (Beirut Collection).
An axe-head from Byblos (Beirut Collection).
Byblos: a Canaanite deity (Ba’al?) whose posture and costume suggest Egyptian influence (Beirut Collection).
Byblos: the “Temple of the Obelisks” – built in a later era than our episode, this temple was dedicated to a New Kingdom war god, Reshep.
Donald B. Redford, The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III, 2003.
Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, 1992.
Yannis Galanakis, The Aegean World: A Guide to the Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenean Antiquities in the Ashmolean Museum, 2013.
Richard A. Gabriel, Thutmose III: A Military Biography, 2009.
Shelley Wachsmann, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, 2008 (Google Books).
Eric H. Cline & David O’Connor, Thutmose III: A New Biography, 2006.
H.R. Hall, “Keftiu and the Peoples of the Sea,” 1902 (JSTOR).
J.B. Pritchard, “Syrians as Pictured in the Paintings of the Theban Tombs,” 1951 (JSTOR).
M.H. Wiener, “Neo-Palatial Knossos: Rule and Role,” 2007 (malcolmweiner.net – ignore Google Warning, false flag).
R. van Dijk, “Bull-Leaping in the Ancient Near East,” 2013 (Academia.edu).