Episode 54: The Three Kingdoms

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A Game of Chess: Thebes, Avaris and Kerma

The Hyksos remain supreme over Egypt, along with their allies the Nubians of Kerma.

In Thebes, the Kings of Dynasty Sixteen are struggling to resist the invaders and reclaim their ancestral kingdom. But there will be hard fights, and dreadful losses, before the war is won.

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The tomb of Senebkay (Near Eastern Archaeology Magazine, 2015: Full Resolution).

A King of Kerma, represented with the White Crown of Upper Egypt, a mace, and a bow. Discovered in the fortresses re-occupied around 1600 BCE.

The shattered head of Seqenenre Tao (c.1560 BCE), found in a cache at Thebes (Image Source: Wikipedia – Full Resolution).


Anthony J. Spalinger, War in Ancient Egypt, 2005

Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, 1994.

Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004 & 2010.

Lazlo Torok, Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt 3700 BC – AD 500, 2009.

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