Episode 53: Rulers of Foreign Lands

The Invasion of the Hyksos – Egypt Subdued

Around 1650 BCE, Egypt is suddenly and catastrophically invaded. Sweeping in from the East, a previously unknown group have taken control of the Delta. They have subdued the Canaanite 14th Dynasty, and even taken Memphis.

The tombs, temples and sacred spaces of the great city are in foreign hands. What happened?!

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The territory of the Hyksos; border in red (Full Resolution).


Daphna Ben-Tor, “Can Scarabs Argue for the Origin of the Hyksos?” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 1 (2009). FREE on Academia.edu.

Nadine Moeller, et al., “Discussion of Late Middle Kingdom and Early Second Intermediate Period History and Chronology in Relation to the Khayan Sealings From Edfu.” Egypt and the Levant, XXI (2011). FREE on Academia.edu.

Wolfram Grajetzki, “Notes on Administration in the Second Intermediate Period,” The Second Intermediate Period, 2010.

Charlotte Booth, The Hyksos Period in Egypt, 2008.