Episode 49: From One Era to Another

Amenemhat IV: Dynasty 12 Nears Its End

The nine-year reign of Maa-cheru-Re Amenemhat IV may seem unremarkable, but Egypt is entering into a fascinating period of international visibility. Foreigners from Canaan are moving into the country in larger and larger numbers, and will eventually cause enormous disruptions in the political world. We explore their origins and their culture…

Maps - Map Archive D12-13 Trade

Amenemhat III

All images wikimedia unless otherwise noted.

A statue head, possibly depicting Amenemhat IV.
D12-A4 maybe sphinx wikimedia
Sphinx of Amenemhat IV.
A gold plaque discovered at Beirut (Lebanon), near Byblos. Maa-cheru-Re Amenemhat IV offers oils to Atum, the Creator.
Relief_Amenemhat_IV_Medinet_Maadi-high exposure
A relief of Amenemhat IV at Medinet Maadi, in the Faiyum (wikimedia). Edited for sharpness and exposure.
Cosmetic box of the royal butler Kemeni, servant of Amenemhat IV (Met Museum).
main-image (1)
Cosmetic box of the royal butler Kemeni, servant of Amenemhat IV (Met Museum).
Cosmetic box of the royal butler Kemeni, servant of Amenemhat IV (Met Museum).
Travertine jars found near Kemeni’s cosmetic box, assumed to be associated with his objects (Met Museum).

Scarabs from Canaan, showing the Egyptian hieroglyphs and tropes which filtered into the country over time. (Source: Lippke, 2011).

Amethyst items produced during the Middle Kingdom. Top: a hippopotamus; below: a scarab.


Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2010.

Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, 2006.

Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, 1994.

Florian Lippke, “The Southern Levant in context. A brief sketch of important figures considering the religious symbol system in the Bronze Ages,” in Egypt and the Near East – the Crossroads. Jana Mynárov, 2011.

Jacke Phillips, “Egyptian Amethyst in the Bronze Age Aegean,” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 1.2 (2009): 9-25.

Ian Shaw, “Amethyst Mining in the Eastern Desert: A Preliminary Survey at Wadi el-Hudi,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 79 (1993): 81-97.

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