Amenemhat IV: Dynasty 12 Nears Its End
The nine-year reign of Maa-cheru-Re Amenemhat IV may seem unremarkable, but Egypt is entering into a fascinating period of international visibility. Foreigners from Canaan are moving into the country in larger and larger numbers, and will eventually cause enormous disruptions in the political world. We explore their origins and their culture…
All images wikimedia unless otherwise noted.
Scarabs from Canaan, showing the Egyptian hieroglyphs and tropes which filtered into the country over time. (Source: Lippke, 2011).
Amethyst items produced during the Middle Kingdom. Top: a hippopotamus; below: a scarab.
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Jacke Phillips, “Egyptian Amethyst in the Bronze Age Aegean,” Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 1.2 (2009): 9-25.
Ian Shaw, “Amethyst Mining in the Eastern Desert: A Preliminary Survey at Wadi el-Hudi,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 79 (1993): 81-97.