Personal and Political Crises in 1776 BCE Dynasty 12 ends with a remarkable twist: Neferu-Sobek, a woman, takes the throne and rules as a King. Her reign lasts three years, ten months, and twenty-four days, ending in 1776 BCE. With her death, a 205-year-old legacy comes to an end, and the Middle Kingdom passes from [...]

Amenemhat IV: Dynasty 12 Nears Its End The nine-year reign of Maacheru-Re Amenemhat IV are unremarkable, but Egypt is entering into a fascinating period of international visibility. Foreigners from Canaan are moving into the country in larger and larger numbers, and will eventually cause enormous disruptions in the political world. We explore their origins and their culture... [...]