Episode 46: Crushing Our Enemies

Senuseret III (Part IV): Fortifying Our Borders, Destroying Our Foes

1864 BCE, regnal year 16 of Kha-kau-Re Senuseret III. The king launches another campaign into Nubia, which sees the border set at the southern community of Semna.

He commissions new fortresses at Uronarti, and improves upon those at Mirgassa and Askut, which fill important functions in their region.

Plunder, trade, captives and territory all flow into Egypt’s hands. How did the foreigners deal with this, and what was their relationship with their new overlords?

Warriors depicted in a tomb at Beni Hassan, Dynasty 12 (New York Public Library).

Maps - Map Archive D12 Defences


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See the Brown University Uronarti blog for detailed information on fortress areas.

The fortress at Uronarti (Brown University excavation blog).
The fortress at Uronarti (Brown University excavation blog).
The fortress at Uronarti (Brown University excavation blog).


A view of the Second Cataract, seen from Uronarti Island (Source: Boston MFA).

Uronarti imagined today (Source: Vogel, 2010).

New Resources

Brown University Uronarti blog

Recent scholarship, published after podcast episode was written: Christian Knoblauch, “Evolving Communities: The Egyptian Fortress on Uronarti in the Late Middle Kingdom,” Sudan and Nubia 21, 1-9 (with L. Bestock). Read for free at Academia.edu

Select Bibliography

Lyla Pinch-Brock, Zahi Hawass, Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: Archaeology, 2003 (Google Books).

Lazlo Török, Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region between Ancient Nubia and Egypt 3700 BC – AD 500, Leiden 2009.

Carola Vogel, The Fortifications of Ancient Egypt 3000-1780 BCE, Osprey Publishing 2010 (Google Books).

Derek Welsby, “Hidden Treasures of Lake Nubia,” Sudan & Nubia volume 8 (2004).

2 Comments Add yours

    1. DominicPerry says:

      Thanks for sharing! 🙂

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