The First Intermediate Period (Part I): Collapse?
We jump slightly in time. By 2100 BCE Pepy II is gone, and with him the last securely-documented reign of the Old Kingdom. A succession of short-reigning kings (and a ruling queen?) see out the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Dynasties. The last two are so ephemeral that we know little of the rulers beyond their names, and a few scattered decrees – and one pyramid by Kha-ka-Re Iby.
Egypt becomes disunited, ruled by provincial governors. A nominally “royal” family, the House of Khety, dominates the North. But the South is in the hand of independent families.
The First Intermediate Period walls (fortifications?) at Tell Edfu, currently excavated by the University of Chicago (Source: emhotep.net).
Love’s Labours Lost by Edwin Longsden Long (1829-1891); given Neith-Ikrety (Nitocris’) reputation for murder, her sanguine attitude seems appropriate (Source: Echoes of Egypt – Peabody Museum).
Nicolas Grimal, A History of Egypt, 1994.
Ian Shaw (editor), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, 2004.
William Kelly Simpson (editor), The Literature of Ancient Egypt, 2003.
The University of Chicago – Tell Edfu Project.
EgyptSites – Edfu.
Reshafim – Lamentations of Ipuwer.