Pepy II (Part III): The End of the Old Kingdom
Egypt’s longest-lived ruler, Pepy II, is now reaching his twilight years, and Egypt is in trouble. A period of drought is sweeping the Near East, and Egypt’s prosperity is waning. A century after Unas recorded starving bedouin in his Valley Temple, the situation is now reaching a head.
An independent Nubian kingdom is reaching early maturity in the South, and this region now enters our narrative as a significant player.
The Pyramid of Pepy II, Saqqara (Source: Egyptphoto.ncf.ca).
Kerma, today (Source: inognidove.it).
Toby H. Wilkinson, The Egyptian World, 2007.
Fekri A. Hassan, “Droughts, Famine and the Collapse of the Old Kingdom: Re-reading Ipuwer,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt – Essays in Honor of David B. O’Connor, 2007.
The University of Chicago – Tell Edfu Project.
Saqqara.nl – The Pyramid of Pepy II.
Swiss Archaeological Mission, Sudan – Kerma.