Pepy II (Part III): The End of the Old Kingdom
Pepy II reaches his twilight years, and Egypt is in trouble. Drought strikes the Near East, increasing desertification and reducing Nile flood levels. A century after the “starving bedouin” of Unas, the situation is now reaching its head.
To make matters worse, and independent kingdom in Nubia (called Kerma) is rising, and enters our narrative as a significant force.
The Pyramid of Pepy II, Saqqara (Source: Egyptphoto.ncf.ca).
Kerma, today (Source: inognidove.it).
Toby H. Wilkinson, The Egyptian World, 2007.
Fekri A. Hassan, “Droughts, Famine and the Collapse of the Old Kingdom: Re-reading Ipuwer,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt – Essays in Honor of David B. O’Connor, 2007.
Juan Carlos Moreno García (editor), Ancient Egyptian Administration, 2013 (Sample Article).
The University of Chicago – Tell Edfu Project.
Saqqara.nl – The Pyramid of Pepy II.
Swiss Archaeological Mission, Sudan – Kerma.